bowen and bok 1998

William G. Bowen and Derek Bok's "The Shape of the River. Considering Race in College and University Admissions by William G. Bowen and Derek Bok. Robert M Solow letter replies to Alan Wolfe's Oct 25 review of William G Bowen and Derek Bok's book, The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences … 2005. 0000003457 00000 n This closing of the gap, moreover, was due to rising black scores, not falling white ones, indicating that something -- perhaps the War on Poverty, perhaps increased black expectations, perhaps improved schooling, especially in math -- was working. . AUTHORS: William G. Bowen and Derek Bok First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America. 2The 10 institutions were drawn from the 34 colleges and universities that Bowen and Bok (1998) included in their College and Beyond data set. Still, the bulk of the material in this book leaves the reader with the sense that the causes are deep and difficult to overcome. Facts have been sorely missing in accounts of the role played by race in admissions to institutions of higher education. As Thomas J. Kane, who teaches public policy at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government, points out in his contribution to the Jencks and Phillips collection, roughly 60 percent of America's institutions of higher education admit nearly all who apply and therefore do not give preference to any particular race. Kane (1998) also finds that black students who attend more selective colleges have higher graduation rates compared with blacks who attended less selective colleges. The Christian Science Monitor is an international news organization that delivers thoughtful, global coverage via its website, weekly magazine, online daily edition, and email newsletters. Black students nearly always perform less well than white students, and also perform below the levels predicted by their SAT scores. The landmark New York Times bestseller that demonstrates the benefits of race-conscious admissions in higher education First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America. /E 42237 But it would be wrong to conclude from ''The Shape of the River'' that affirmative action works. The picture improves even more if one examines the years after college. Some of the evidence collected by Bowen and Bok confirms this; in less selective institutions, black graduation rates six years after entering college are significantly lower than white graduation rates. Bowen william and derek bok 1998 the shape of the. 'blacks have less academic aptitude than whites' as claims that blacks are innately inferior.'' There are nonetheless good reasons to do our best to overcome this gap. Bowen and Bok (1998) con-clude that minorities receive a greater premium for attend-ing a top-tier school than white students, and Kane (1998) finds that the gains associated with attending a more selec-tive college are higher for those with lower test scores. International Shipping Eligible; Availability. Qualification Test scores). School Allatoona High School; Course Title ENGL 102; Uploaded By txcloclo. Despite their lower SAT scores, black graduates of the nation's selective colleges are active participants in civic life. 472 pp. Reviewed by Ihan Kim* I. 1075 0 obj An even greater number of minority high school students will score so low on the SAT's or equivalent tests that they will not go to college at all or will attend technical schools and community colleges. October 25, 1998, Section 7, Page 15 Buy Reprints. They also matter. In ''The Shape of the River,'' William G. Bowen and Derek Bok -- former presidents of Princeton and Harvard Universities -- seek ''to build a firmer foundation of fact'' under America's affirmative action debate. See Bowen and Bok, The Shape of the River, p. 50. Buy Universities in the Marketplace: The Commercialization of Higher Education (The William G. Bowen Memorial Series in Higher Education) (The William G. Bowen Series) New Ed by Bok, Derek (ISBN: 9780691120126) from Amazon's Book Store. What Bowen and Bok have proved is that going to a top college works. ↩ 26. A pathbreaking book by William Bowen and Derek Bok, published in 1998, was the first to systematically examine how beneficiaries of affirmative action fared. >> 0000003665 00000 n /T 726791 << Educational policies, programs, and practices emerge from the mission of the institution (Kuh, Schuh, Whitt, In one study, Bowen and Bok (1998) reported that 86% of the African Americans at selective colleges were middle or upper class. <> A gap between blacks and whites on intelligence tests appears when children are 4 years old. Gokhan Savas 1, 1 Social Sciences … Critics of affirmative action say that it is unfair to black students to be forced to compete against whites who are better prepared for demanding academic work. . Considering Race in College and University Admissions by William G. Bowen and Derek Bok. . . [���1�zM�v���0�p�. In addition to having geographic spread, the 10 NSCE schools include representatives from public universities, private research November 1998 ()INTRODUCTION. E-bok, 1998. As Phillips and her colleagues point out, we could eliminate at least half, and probably more, of the black-white test score gap at the end of the 12th grade by eliminating the differences that exist before children enter first grade. See Bowen and Bok, The Shape of the River, p. 50. The landmark New York Times bestseller that demonstrates the benefits of race-conscious admissions in higher education First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America.It grounded a contentious subject in concrete data at a time when arguments surrounding it were characterized … 0000003766 00000 n Discusses a study conducted by W. G. Bowen and D. Bok that develops hard empirical evidence about the benefits of using race-sensitive admissions to selective higher education. It is nevertheless encouraging that even 14 percent of the black matriculants were from families so deprived. even more evident at elite research institutions (Bowen and Bok, 1998). TERM CONSEQUENCES OF CONSIDERING RACE IN COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS . Bowen and Bok (1998) reached a different conclusion about affirmative ac-tion, based on higher overall graduation rates for minority students at selective colleges (28 moderately to extremely selective institutions). is the subject of The Shape of the River--Long Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions by William G. Bowen and Derek Bok. The real problem arises among those black high school graduates who never fully recover from their initial disadvantage in testing and who therefore wind up scoring in the 800-1000 range on SAT's. << Amen. <> Emphasizing graduation rate, W. Bowen and D. Bok (1998) argue that "race-sensitive " admission at selective colleges enhances the educational attainment of underrepresented minority students, and that the effect increases with college selectivity. Bowen, William G.; Bok, Derek This book examines issues of race in college admission through analysis of data from the College and Beyond database, a study of the college careers and subsequent lives of over 45,000 students of all races who had attended academically selective universities between the 1970s and early 1990s. The institutions we chose to sample mirror those examined by Bowen and Bok (1998) in their College and Beyond Survey. See the article in its original context from. Such is the disparity between the races that a frightening number of African-Americans lose a good shot at entering the middle class even before they enter kindergarten. Bowen, William, and Derek Bok. No work tells tions in general. PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE AND DISSEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY. About the Book. . by Scott Williams April 11, 2000. . In The Shape of the River (Princeton University Press, 1998; $24.95) William G. Bowen and Derek Bok, '51, have produced a work that could serve as a much-needed curative to that perspective—if only those with loud voices and ill-informed convictions would read it and learn. 0000000872 00000 n Reviewed by Darren Woodruff, American Institutes for Research, Washington, D.C. … See Jeffrey Rosen, “Damage Control,” The New Yorker, February 23 and March 2, 1998, p. 58. It grounded a contentious subject in concrete data at a time when arguments surrounding it were characterized more by emotion than evidence—and it made a forceful case that race-conscious admissions were successfully helping to promote equal … ''Eliminating racial differences in test performance,'' Jencks and Phillips write, ''would also allow colleges, professional schools and employers to phase out the racial preferences that have caused so much political trouble over the past generation.'' TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES. >> endobj Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, n20 p120-22 Sum 1998. stream << /S 273 /Length 150 Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). … Their book unintentionally fuels rather than quenches the passions over affirmative action. They may well be correct. The aims and values of an educational institution are often revealed most vividly by the choices it … Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. The database on which this study rests includes more than 80,000 undergraduates from 28 selective institutions. 0000003084 00000 n Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998, 472pp. River Runs True. This means that African-Americans who show up in the Bowen and Bok study have already won some of life's biggest battles. The benefits gained by minority students at the top colleges, in other words, could come at the price of greater conflict between black and white applicants to those less selective colleges where middle-class aspirations meet head on. . Long Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions" (Princeton, September 1998) breaks this mold. They argued that empowerment must encourage 1087 0 obj According to Greenberg (2002:526), the nation's 25 most highly selective universities offer about 50,000 slots annually. 8 Using the College and Beyond (C&B) database collected by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the authors had rich information on more than 80,000 undergraduate students who, as members of one of three cohorts, … Bowen, William G. and Derek Bok. 0000010118 00000 n The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Hoxby (1998) and Brewer, Eide, and Ehrenberg (1999) find some evidence that this return to selectivity has increased during the last few decades. William G. Bowen (1933-2016) was president emeritus of The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and Princeton University and founding chairman of ITHAKA.. His many books included The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions (with Derek Bok) (Princeton).Derek Bok is the 300th Anniversary University Research Professor at Harvard … It grounded a contentious subject in concrete data at a time when arguments surrounding it were characterized more by emotion than evidence—and it made a forceful case that race-conscious admissions were successfully helping to promote equal … has been cited by the following article: Article. /O 1073 First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America. endobj %���� endobj Still, Bowen and Bok conclude that the overall picture proves that minority students are not ''overmatched'' in comparison with whites admitted with much higher SAT scores to the nation's top schools. /Linearized 1 stream /H [ 872 232 ] Cameron Howell and Sarah E. Turner (2004) document a similar advantage at the University of Virginia, where only 32 percent of regular applicants were admitted compared with 57 percent of alumni children. There is no more important step to be taken along the road to racial justice than building and strengthening a black middle class. (2002), the admissions procedures in Israeli universities create a number of obstacles for minority students. It is nevertheless encouraging that even 14 percent of the black matriculants were from families so deprived. Getting into and graduating from one of these colleges may well play a more significant role in the life prospects of a medium-range SAT scorer of either race than graduation from a top college plays for a high scorer of either race, for these are the colleges that historically made it possible to move from the working class into the middle class. 1 'pThy Linda Chavez. The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. 1998 College Admission and Affirmative Action- Consequences and Alternatives Ihan Kim ... DEREK BOK & WILLIAM BOWEN, THE SHAPE OF THE RIVER: LONG. . information, Bowen and Bok tically sophisticated-will mark a present an analysis that is care- watershed in national discussions * .~ ful, clear, comprehensive, and, of affirmative action and race rela- above all, candid. 1071 17 Consistent with the research of Bowen and Bok (1998), McDowell (1992) and Jones et al. There is no more important step to be taken along the road to racial justice than building and strengthening a black middle class. DEREK BOK & WILLIAM BOWEN, THE SHAPE OF THE RIVER: LONG. 0000003191 00000 n >> First person: New book strengthens argument for affirmative action The argument about affirmative action in colleges and universities has been put on an entirely new and much more solid footing by virtue of the publication of The Shape of the River: The Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions.. The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Educational policies, programs, and practices emerge from the mission of the institution (Kuh, Schuh, Whitt, and Associates, 1991). . The material assembled by Jencks and Phillips helps explain why that group is so large. But while the preference is smaller than at the most selective colleges, the impact on many students is larger (Thomas Kane's data indicate that black and Hispanic students receive an 8 percent to 10 percent preference at the most academically selective fifth of four-year institutions, but only a 3 percent preference at schools ranked in the fourth of the five tiers). 1073 0 obj The best of these students will attend colleges that are somewhat selective, and which therefore still exercise some degree of racial preference in admissions. The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions by William G. Bowen and Derek Bok. $24.95, cloth. We ought not to forget, they write, that although whites with very high scores may be ''spectacularly well qualified'' for college, blacks with somewhat lower scores are anything but unqualified. Yet until now the debate has been mainly one of Of all the facts presented in these two sobering books, the most important is this: When we debate using racial preferences to admit more black and Hispanic students to the nation's best colleges, we are considering the fate of a shockingly small number of people. endobj Bowen, William G.; Bok, Derek (2000) [1998], The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691050198; Bok, Derek (2001), The Trouble with Government, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674004485 When principle is at stake, facts become conveniences to be cited when helpful and to be explained away when harmful. Of the 1,650 institutions that were list-ed in Barron's 2003 Profile of American Colleges, only 64 institutions, or 3.9 percent, were classified as "most competitive." William G. Bowen and Derek Bok Californians have voted to abol-ish it. x�+ r r . /Filter/FlateDecode >> endstream Bowen, Bok, And Others. 2The 10 institutions were drawn from the 34 colleges and universities that Bowen and Bok (1998) included in their College and Beyond data set. xڝW�n�8}�W��6pdɗ�n���1��^[i�@_h���ȢJRqݯ�ʖ/��ED&9�3��_�N���{��O��rܶ}6��ԅ���U��������yv�u��>����ύ��t�/��xTk�5��?�ݴ���?L��nw�۹����MG��މ��d��u��"���? They may well be correct. Much has changed since Dewey (1916) first laid out in Democracy and Education his vision of the US as a state of perpetual inquiry where citizens are engaged in sharing educational experiences. By the age of 6, black vocabulary scores match those of whites who are 5. In addition to having geographic spread, the 10 NSCE schools include representatives from public universities, private research universities, small liberal arts colleges, and historically black colleges and universities. Bok and Bowen state that the journey from college admissions through career and family life is akin to moving down a long, winding river with many varied conditions. 1 'pThy Linda Chavez. Nonetheless, Jencks writes, ''the skill differences that the tests measure are real.'' Google Scholar. . /L 748257 Laddas ned direkt. from diversity on campus, and addressing long-term societal needs (Bowen and Bok, 1998, p. 278). The five or six most competitive colleges, in other words, fight over the 300 or so African-Americans with the highest scores; the next 20 or 30 colleges, still top ranked, have to drop down to those scoring in the 1200's or below if they want their student bodies to reflect the percentage of the population that is black or Hispanic -- all the while rejecting many white applicants with much higher scores. Every African-American who enters a profession or buys a house in the suburbs gives the lie to two pervasive cynicisms -- one that blames black Americans for their own inequality and the other that in blaming white racism for all the ills of America ends up excusing self-defeating black isolationism. The bonus is so large because, in 1995, 70 African-Americans scored over 700 on the verbal portions of the SAT; 221 more scored over 650. 0000001345 00000 n In their most impressive finding, Bowen and Bok show that of the 700 or so black entering students from the class of 1976 who would not have been admitted to one of the nation's more selective institutions had strictly race-neutral criteria been applied, 225 obtained professional or graduate degrees, 70 became doctors, 60 became lawyers, 125 became business executives; and as a body, they earned an average of $71,000 annually. demonstrates why affirmative action programs can be good for the country. trailer Bowen and Bok's book, "The Shape of the River," released Thursday by Princeton University Press, shows us what the UC system, the state and the nation will … . First published in 1998, William Bowen and Derek Bok’s The Shape of the River became an immediate landmark in the debate over affirmative action in America. See Jeffrey Rosen, “Damage Control,” The New Yorker, February 23 and March 2, 1998, p. 58. /Root 1072 0 R Shulman, Thomas I. Nygren, Stacy Berg Dale and Lauren A. Meserve. Bowen and Bok, 1998;) םהלש עדיה תא םילגמ םישנא םהבש םינפואה תא תכוותמו יכ הלגמ ,לשמל ,( 1982 ) Astin לש ורקחמ . River Runs True. INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 2 Much of the past research using the C&B data (such as Bowen and Bok (1998) and Dale and Krueger (2002)) 2 The C&B schools include Barnard College, Bryn Mawr College, Columbia University, Denison College, Duke University, Emory University, Georgetown University, Hamilton College, Howard University, Kenyon College, Miami University of Ohio, Morehouse College, Northwestern University, … Office of Educational Research and Improvement . /Prev 726780 Goals of the Admissions Process ..... 148 B. 0000010095 00000 n 0000003309 00000 n The most selective colleges admit smaller percentages of black students than less selective colleges (Soares 2007, 174–75), and black students are also much less likely than white students to attend and graduate from highly selective institutions (Alon and Tienda 2007; Bowen and Bok 1998; Carnevale and Rose 2003). TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES. /N 29 . from diversity on campus, and addressing long-term societal needs (Bowen and Bok, 1998, p. 278). The pervasive use of such tests, he adds, constitutes a ''selection system bias,'' because relying on the tests rather than performance will invariably discriminate against blacks and Hispanic applicants. The landmark New York Times bestseller that demonstrates the benefits of race-conscious admissions in higher education This is the book that has forever changed the debate on affirmative action in America. The traditional metaphor of the "pipeline," on the other hand, gives a false impression of a smooth, well-defined passage through these stages of life. Are the tests biased? ADMISSIONS AND COLLEGE PERFORMANCE ..... 148 A . With the publication of their book, and of ''The Black-White Test Score Gap,'' edited by Christopher Jencks, the Malcolm Wiener Professor of Social Policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, and Meredith Phillips, an assistant professor of policy studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, the fact gap has closed considerably.

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